Friday, May 22, 2020
Current proposed cuts to university funding will damage AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s education system The Australian education system provides primary, secondary and tertiary education. School education is primary and secondary while tertiary education includes both higher education (including universities) and vocational education and training (VET) (Elcom 2013). Australian qualification framework (AQF) is a national policy, government-authorized and nationally accredited, covering tertiary education sector. The AQF has 10 levels and links school, vocational and university education qualifications into one national system (Elcom 2013). With respect to funding education, each state or territory government provides funding and regulates the public and private schools within its governing area while the federal government helps fund the public universities (Elcom 2013; King 2001, p. 190). The universities are predominantly government-owned and relay on government funding for their main source of income to run their everyday business and they argue that the reduced funding would bring a crisis in higher education system (King 2001, p. 191). On the other hand, government of all political persuasions seems to accept university funding as trivial government agenda. Even though, recently elected coalition government has announced an increase in research funding, the package seems too little compare to recent university funding cut (King 2001, p. 191). 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Saturday, May 9, 2020
Uncommon Article Gives You the Facts on Essay for College Application Samples That Only a Few People Know Exist
Uncommon Article Gives You the Facts on Essay for College Application Samples That Only a Few People Know Exist There are many different college application essay suggestions to help you prepare a great paper. Another tip is to simply downplay the terrible grades by your college admission essay. Observing these hints will set you in the very best place to write the very best college admissions essay possible. If you wish to create a college essay which works, you want to provide importance on the content you will supply the admissions officer of your intended university with. The personal statement is your opportunity to go over anything that isn't reflected in a different part of your college application. This document might only be a sheet of paper or a digital document. However, it can greatly impact your college admissions application. To start a college essay, ensure you've got a write grasp of the assignment and pick a topic that suits the assignment's parameters. The college admissions panel would love to understand the individual behind all these specifics. Being a nurse has ever meant more that just a sheet of fabric. The admissions officers will merely devote a brief period of time reviewing your essay, and that means you will need to begin with a vivid paragraph that will keep them engaged. College admissions officers wish to know about your targets and values and what you've learned from your experiences. The college officials won't be able to learn your capabilities, thoughts, and potential. The huge pothole on Elm Street that my mother was able to hit each day on the best way to school would be filled-in. The issue is that every college has unique requirements. Consult your parents to spell out the rear row to you. If you believe that you are able to write an essay that will enhance your probability of being accepted, by all means, go ahead. After your write, essay should consist of several body paragraphs, every one of which should concentrate on one key topic which will help support the thesis. The essay is just one of the key methods you're able to distinguish yourself. It's very much the exact same with writing an essay. Stephen's essay is rather effective. For instance, if you're writing about a book, don't just summarize the plot. Essay readers are seeking insightful writing. The author starts with a rather thorough story of an event or description of an individual or place. For instance, you're a dancer since you use dance as a means to express with your body what you can't express to your vocal cords. You decide the type of nurse you're likely to be and what qualities you would like to represent regardless of what others do. Being a real nurse used to be related to the white starched dress uniform and cap. Grab their attention initially and make an effort not to let up. You'll observe a similar structure in a number of the essays. Our celebration wouldn't be complete without your presence. Or you're able to view 18 essays all on a single page. These seven sample essays respond to a wide variety of thought-provoking questions. A vital quality for virtually any engineer is the capability to communicate with fellow engineers. Inside this regard, online services are suitable since they can provide well written essays at very reasonable rates. In addition, it utilised to mean handmaiden or the person who takes orders. Allow it to sit for a couple days untouched.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
As we venture into this major event of building a manufacturing factory, which will be situated within a major residential development area, concerns are being raised about noise and the impacts it will have on the health of the community nearby. Since relocating, the company to a different place is an uphill task and very expensive, we have involved the local community in the decisions that might affect them due to the operations of our factory. In line with our goal to embody environmental sustainability and to support economic activity that will improve the quality of life of the nearby community and the urban residents, we will engage the residents in discussions to obtain their views and to alleviate their worries. We will write a custom essay sample on Development organisation in an urban facility or any similar topic only for you Order Now In consultation with the community, which consists of people with various economic, education and occupation backgrounds, we have brought their needs, concerns and aspirations and presented them in this strategy. PURPOSE, AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE CONSULTATION STRATEGY We believe that a strategy is needed to provide a coordinated and effective approach to consulting our neighbouring residents. Industrial noise generated from stationary sources such as production plants, refineries, manufacturing facilities, factories, pumping stations, etc. can affect people in various ways depending on a number of key variables. The discussion would involve the residents nearby and not factory workers. Noise emissions from factories to the environment pose the greatest challenge to the industry and the regulators to establish and maintain appropriate limits. Noise is considered a biological stressor and excessive exposure to it is a health risk since it can contribute to the development and aggravation of stress related conditions such as high blood pressure, ulcers, migraine headaches, coronary disease and colitis. The body usually responds automatically to noise as a warning signal. Though reactions to a one time exposure to noise do not result in any irreversible effects, research suggests otherwise in some cases. Ã The purpose for this strategy is to provide clear guidelines on how to undertake the consultations and then implement the recommendations. The aim of this strategy is to minimize the noise levels that emanate from our factory into the environment by seeking the views of the neighbouring community and giving them a chance to influence our decisions. Our agreed objectives is to carry out a consultation that is inclusive, accessible and valuing diversity; communicate back the results of the consultation back to the community; implement the results of our consultation. TRANS-CULTURAL CHALLENGES Why Culture? To determine these challenges, a framework definition of culture is important. Culture defines how we work, communicate, interact, decide, act and respond in the working world. Our backgrounds such as race, gender, or national origin shape our culture. Our economic status, groups that we join, where we live brand us with different cultures. Conflict resolution draws much from our cultural backgrounds. Since our factory is sited in a major urban residential area, the nearby people hail from different cultural backgrounds shaped with their economic status, place of birth etc. We expect to be misunderstood by some of our neighbours while illustrating to them our strategy, much of this might be because of different cultural values. Just as anthropologists Avruch and Black (1993) stated Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦OneÃ¢â¬â¢s own culture provides the Ã¢â¬Å"lensÃ¢â¬ through which we view the world; the Ã¢â¬Å"logicÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ by which we order it; the Ã¢â¬Å"grammarÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ by which it makes senseÃ¢â¬ , we expect people to respond to our solution differently. Some might also interpret it as Ã¢â¬Å"abnormalÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"weirdÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"wrongÃ¢â¬ (Avruch Black, 1993). Facing the Challenges To carry out this consultation, the influence of culture on our communication has to be understood. As engineers, we will be tasked with interpreting to the community what we believe and have tested to be low noise and with minimum or no health hazard. We will also be expected to help in the decision making process for the implementation of the consultation results. We must also involve some representatives of the community in the daily operations of the factory and the environmental safety achieved at different stages. Sample Project In a survey conducted on cross-cultural challenges involved in Japanese overseas projects, 33 Japanese professionals from various organizations educational institutions in Japan responded to the survey. This research investigated the challenges faced by the Japanese workers in international projects. Most of them preferred cross-cultural training to better equip them with what to expect from other cultures. Effectiveness of trans-cultural approaches Training for our employees is necessary for them to understand the complaints that might be raised from time to time by the residents during the operations of the factory. The residents will also be notified of the allowable noise levels recommended by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). In doing these, we expect to improve our interaction and communication with the residents and achieve our goal of environmental sustainability to improve the quality of life of the nearby community. LIST OF REFERENCES: Avruch, K. and Black, P. (1993). Conflict Resolution in Intercultural Settings: Problems and Prospects. Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice Integration and Application. Manchester: Manchester University Press. How to cite Development organisation in an urban facility, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Person-Centered Therapy Liberty University Abstract: Person-Centered Therapy is a therapeutic approach to counseling that was developed by Carl Rogers in the 1940s. Within this approach, Rogers emphasized that it was the attitudes as well as the personal characteristics of the relationship between the therapist and the client that was of the utmost importance in the outcome of the therapeutic process. The therapeutic goals of the Person-Centered approach being, to allow the therapist to assist the clients to be true to themselves and eventually reach their full potential, or self-actualization. This paper will discuss the principles of Person-Centered therapy as well as address the founder of this approach Carl Rogers. This paper will also discuss how this approach has grown since its conception, its strengths and weaknesses as a therapy, and the types of problems that this approach seems to work best on. History of Person-Centered Theory: Person-Centered Therapy is just one approach out of many therapeutic approaches of Psychotherapy. Person-Centered Therapy shares many of its key principles with the existential perspective in that both concepts put emphasis on the importance of the client-therapist relationship being at the core of the therapy. This approach was founded my Carl Rogers in the 1940s. According to Theory and Practice of Counseling, Rogers was a therapist known for his contributions and support of humanistic psychology. He was a pioneer in the development of the concepts that emphasized the importance of the relationship between client and therapist. (Corey, 2013) Carl Rogers considered himself to be a part of the humanist approach, he believed that people were ultimately trustworthy and good. This belief was another one of the key principles that he incorporated into the ideals of his new theory. Rogers stated within his approach, that the clients also had the potential to understand what was going on within themselves and could also potentially resolve their own issues, with minimal assistance from the therapist. Throughout the development of this approach Carl Rogers maintained his belief that it is ultimately up to the client, and not just the therapist, to grow and become the person that they needed to be for the type of self-change that was needed. This is one of the main reasons that Carl Rogers put so much focus on the concept that the clients ability to change lies in the relationship found between the client and the counselor. The counselors main goal was to encourage the client in their growth. In the article by Fred Zimring and Nathaniel Raskin the authors explain how Rogers came to the final concepts behind his Person-Centered theory approach. Rogers put an increased emphasis on the importance of the clients world as the client sees it. He encouraged the counselors that would practice his approach to live within the context of the clients world. That this would be how you would connect with them. The authors go on to explain how Rogers gradually established his theory with the combination of what he called propositions. The first of Rogers proposition was that individuals exists in a world of experiences that is continually changing, one that they are the center of, the next proposition was that each person reacts to his or her field as they experience it, and as it is perceived by each person. Rogers, then stated that it was this world to which the therapist is to attend to with his client. He maintained that it was not the true reality which is important, but rather the world as the client sees it. Rogers believed that the best vantage point for understanding the behaviors of ones clients was to do so from the internal frame of reference of the individual. (Zimring et al., 1992) Types of Problems Person-Centered Theory is Most Useful For: The Person-Centered approach has proven to be useful in a wide array of circumstances. With the main concept of this theory putting the importance on the client and on the relationship of the client with the therapist, it makes this style particularly easy to apply to a variety of circumstances. Person-centered therapy has been used to enhance ones personal growth with the goal of reaching self-actualization, as well as promotes healthy relationships. In order to do this the therapists had to be able
Friday, March 20, 2020
The Role of Unions in Improving and Disrupting an Organizations Culture Essay Example The Role of Unions in Improving and Disrupting an Organizations Culture Essay The Role of Unions in Improving and Disrupting an Organizations Culture Essay The Role of Unions in Improving and Disrupting an OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s Culture Describing and identifying the importance of abstract terms is a difficult task because their meaning rely more on substance than form. For this and other reasons, individuals as well as organizations tend to overlook or underestimate their importance for a successful career and for the effective functioning of an organization. Organizational CultureÃ¢â¬ is one of those terms, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t see it, but we can feel and experience it, and it has a profound impact in the way people behave in an organization. It denotes the attitudes, experiences, beliefs, and values of the work group or team within the organization, which to an extent affect the organization as a whole. All employees whatever their grade is, and whether they are professionals or not, contribute to the culture of an organization by bringing their diverse talents, knowledge, skills, values, and beliefs to the entity. Employees may possess abilities and talents that might enable them to fit into the organization and empower it, partly as a result of socialization, but they might need assistance from others, such as Human Resource Development specialists and Union cooperative efforts, in order to learn the skills that will enable them to play their part in the team, group, or department. The culture of an organization is important not only to individuals but to the organization itself. This makes culture an important part of every organization and union leaders and management need to understand the central role it plays in forming an effective organization. Union understanding of the important role culture play for an organization is essential since the recognition of unions and the labor agreement usually means structural changes to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s policies, practices, strategies, and the environment. According to Neal M. Ashkanasy, author of the book Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate, more and more practitioners are coming to realize that, despite the best-laid plans, organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes, but also changing the corporate culture as well. Unions can play a role in creating and changing an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, since they are in a position to provide the workforce with information designed to influence decisions about work practices, rules, preferred behaviors and attitudes, etc. Management as well as staff developers need, therefore, to communicate frequently with trade union officers. Improving organizational culture has become a necessity in todays ever- changing business environment. However, it can be a big challenge for the organization and its members. Managing in a union environment can be frustrating and confusing. Managers in a unionized workplace are challenged to manage effectively within legal and contractual parameters. This make the decision-making process more difficult for managers who must count with the union approval for many decisions and changes that might conflict with the labor agreement. If managers are not flexible in outcome, or are too specialized, then the organization may become too narrowly focused and the motivation and creative thought, a necessary precursor for innovation may be stiffed. Also, although individual ideas are important, strategies for team-working are essential. One of the primary responsibilities of strategic leaders is to create and maintain the organizational characteristics that reward and encourage collective effort (Neal M. Ashkanasy, 10). Individuals should be motivated to work as part of a team sharing a common vision of the direction in which they would like the organization to develop. To this end, unions are one of the most effective institutions that can be used to bring people that share common interests, goals, and principles together and motivate them to work as a team, since the mechanism of the union itself encourages team participation. Today, organizational leaders are confronted with many complex issues during their attempts to generate organizational achievement. A leaders success will depend, to a great extent, upon understanding organizational culture. Paul Clark, author of the book Building More Effective Unions contends that Ã¢â¬Å"Many of the problems confronting leaders can be traced to their inability to analyze and evaluate organizational cultures. Ã¢â¬ Many leaders, when trying to implement new strategies or a strategic plan leading to a new vision, will discover that their strategies will fail if they are inconsistent with the organizations culture. For example, a CEO, SES, political appointee, or flag officer who comes into an organization prepared to shake the place up and institute sweeping changes, often experiences resistance to changes and failure. These difficulties with organizational transformations arise from failures to analyze an organizations existing culture. According to Franklin Ashby, author of the book Revitalize your Corporate Culture, Ã¢â¬Å"When an organization has a union, most of the culture of the organization is dictated by the union contract, and the on-going relationship with the union. Unless Union cooperation is obtained, little can be done to change the culture of an organization. However, Unions often resist change to protect the interests of their members. One of the strongest cultures in the United States is the United Automobile Workers. Over the years and through many negotiations, they have established work rules that workers and companies must follow. These are now an integral part of the organizational culture of the Big Three Automobile Makers. For example, when competition from Japanese car makers cause the Big Three U. S. utomobile firms a significant loss of market share, the organizational culture of American Auto manufacturers had to be changed. This could be accomplished only through negotiation with the union. Although some labor leaders oppose any change they feel may weaken the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s position, more and more enlightened labor union leaders are moving from an adversarial to a more cooperative philosophy (Franklin Ashby, 3). According to Paul F. Clark, author of the book Building More Effective Unions, Ã¢â¬Å"Most efforts to change an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture will meet with some resistance. A systematic approach to change is most effective in meeting such resistance. Many of us are familiar with the slogans, songs, jackets, parades, banquets, and picnics of unions because they are all part of the labor movement. To some they are simply windows dressing, unconnected to the important things that build an effective union. But, in fact, these things are part of a potentially and powerful phenomenon called Ã¢â¬Å"organizational cultureÃ¢â¬ (Paul F. Clark, 10). It is important that unions understand the central role that culture plays in an effective organization and work to build a strong culture consistent with the union as well as the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s values, beliefs, and objectives. This is essential to avoid conflict by having two different cultures with different organizational objectives in the same company. Although one general culture might be ideal and best for an organization, subcultures exist and they do not necessarily exist to hurt the overall culture of the organization as long as the culture that involves the common interest of most members is accepted and recognized. The existence of subcultures is normal. In an organization with a strong culture, subcultures created by union members do not cause problems because the overall values and beliefs of the group are well recognized and accepted. If the culture of an organization is week, however, subcultures can override and compete with the overall culture, which can be disruptive to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. In his analysis, Paul Clark mentions that the effectiveness of a culture can be measured by the degree to which that culture and its various elements and subcultures clearly communicate the values of the organization. One of the core values emphasized by unions is the welfare of the collective group. Towards this end unions emphasize the principles of solidarity, unity, and togetherness. One common aspect of union culture that helps to communicate these values is the use of the terms Ã¢â¬Å"brotherÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sisterÃ¢â¬ to refer to union members (Paul F. Clark, 6). Other values held in great regard by unions are fairness, equity, and justice. Unions help improve an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture by enforcing these values whenever they are violated or necessary for the welfare of employees. For example, managers often complaint about the tendency of unions to challenge through the grievance procedure many of the disciplinary actions taken by management. However, such challenge simply reflects the value that unions and union members place on due process and the fairness it brings to the workplace. By challenging any questionable management decision, unions are forcing management to evaluate the fairness of every action they take, before they take it. The member-union contract has an impact not only on union attachment, attitudes, and behaviors, but also on how it affects organizational culture. In summarizing the findings of their widely cited book, What Do Unions Do? Freeman and Medoff conclude that Ã¢â¬Å"Unions alter nearly every aspect of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Ã¢â¬ The authors suggest that unions exert effects on organizational culture through collective bargaining. The primary effects of collective bargaining are the gains that the union is able to realize at the bargaining table for the employees. For example, extrinsic benefits like wages, job security, and working conditions, are all concerns that have dominated the collective bargaining agenda of North American Unions. Gains in these areas are determined primarily by the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to acquire and use power in the bargaining relationship. For example, the union wage effect is largely dependent on the ability of the union to achieve monopoly power within an industry. It is important to note that the union effects on organizational culture are also outcomes that emerge though managementÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to collective bargaining provisions. ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s adjustment to the conditions imposed by collective bargaining and the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s counteraction to managerial action will determine the nature and extent of union effects on organizational culture. The ability of unions to achieve their goals in areas such as wages, job security, and working conditions have important ramifications for organization culture both within the union and within the organization. For example, unions have a direct effect on the level, form, structure, and system of compensation plans. Through effective bargaining unions can improve an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture by emphasizing and enforcing the values, principles, and beliefs the members of the organization consider important. For example, the union can achieve fairness and equity with wage increases and justice and dignity with provisions for job security and better working conditions. Although these effects wary across industry and individuals, some general conclusion may be drawn. First, and most important, unions raise wages. Estimates of union wage effect wary but in general wage levels in unionized industries are 10 to 20% higher than wages for comparable non-unionized industries (William Holley, 324). Similarly, unions have a positive impact on employee benefits with unionized industries spending more on fringe benefits than comparable non-unionized firms. Job security is another factor through which unions help improves an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture concern for layoffs. For example, collective agreements often contain clauses that directly influence individualÃ¢â¬â¢s job security such as provisions for layoffs, job transfers, and contracting out. The prevalence of such provisions indicates the high priority placed on job security by union members. Based on the Quality of Employment Survey data, union membership was the best predictor of whether individuals would trade a 10% increase in real wages in exchange for increased job security. Unions also increase the security of their members from arbitrary decision making though the provision of grievance systems. Through the implementation of grievance systems with provisions for third-party dispute resolution, unions substantially increase the costs of arbitrary management decisions. As mentioned by Julian Barling, Author of the book The Union its Members, One would expect, and empirical evidence confirms that Ã¢â¬Å"Management decision making in a unionized environment would be more regulated by formal procedures and based on more objective criteria. Other areas in which Union have helped to improve an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is through their intensive efforts to improve occupational health and safety in the workplace by advocating for government regulations, negotiating health and safety provisions, and encouraging the formation of labor-management committees to deal with health and safety issues. In additional to the negotiation of clauses dealing with health and safety, unions may also negotiate compensating wage differentials for workers exposed to higher risks. By doing so, they increase the incentive for management to improve working conditions by increasing the cost of dangerous work. Overall, unions substantially increase awareness of health and safety issues in the workplace. In addition to safety and health issues, unions also negotiate contact provisions dealing with a variety of working condition (William Holley, 435). For instance, hours of work, scheduling of rest breaks, and, in some cases, and rate of production. To the extent that unions are successful in negotiating these gains, unionization may have an indirect effect on occupational health and safety. Provisions such as rest breaks, minimization of overtime, and shift scheduling may all affect the risk of on-the-job injury. According to Clive Fullagar, the Neo-Classical Economic Theory suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"Management may react to the increased costs associated with unionization by replacing labor with capital. However, an alternate theory suggests that unionization has Ã¢â¬Å"shock effectÃ¢â¬ on management, whereby management reacts to unionization by becoming more efficient. Ã¢â¬ Such increased efficiency may be evidenced by the introduction of centralized, professional human resources functions and increased reliance on formalized decision making. Union involvement in the formulation of management decisions may be seen as usurping the rights of management to run the workplace. On the other hand, collective bargaining maybe e viewed as a way of managing the workplace rather than an abandonment of traditional management prerogatives. In this regard, it should be noted that through their involvement in establishing work rules and organizational policies, unions may have both positive and negative effects on organizational culture. The impact of unions in managerial decision making is seen clearly in the development of personal policies. It is commonly recognized that unions influence the use of seniority as a criteria for promotions and job transfers. Unions also have an effect on hiring decisions. For example, one managerial response to wage premiums maybe to raise the hiring standards of the firm and in particular to place more emphasis on education as a hiring criteria. The presence of a union may result in the implementation of policies that are in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest. Thus, the presence of a union is associated with more efficient managerial decision making. In particular, this increased efficiency is attributable to the formalization of decision making and the substitution of policy for individual judgment as a basis for decision making. As the preceding discussion indicates, unions have substantial effects on organizational culture through the negotiation of specific provisions in the collective agreement. Additional union effects on organizational culture also accrue during the administration of the collective agreement as management and the union adjusts to the new environmental conditions mandated by the collective agreement. Unions improve organizational culture by supporting, developing, and enforcing values, beliefs, attitudes that are of importance to the members of the organization. As a result, this has a direct effect at increasing productivity and performance. Freeman and Medoff have concluded that unions substantially increase the productivity of organizations. That is, after controlling for various organizational characterizes, unionized firms are more productive than their non-unionized counterparts. However, nionized firms are found to be less profitable than non-unionized firms because the increase in productive do not seem to offset the increased costs of unionization. Freeman and Medoff point out that Ã¢â¬Å"The union impact on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity can be explained by two factors. Ã¢â¬ First, unionization leads to a more stable workforce by reducing voluntary turnover. A direct consequence of this increase stability is the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s investment in human resources management. Second, the union effect on productivity provides a conceptual basis for the hypothesis that unionization may have an effect on individual job performance. For example, through more rigorous selection, investment in employee training, and the institution of more professional management practices, an organization attempts to adjust to the cost of unionism by increasing individual job performance. While the end result of such strategies is an increase in firm productivity, the initial effect is plausibly an increase in individual job performance. It is imperative to note that the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on firm productivity is moderated by the quality of union-management relations. When the industrial relation climate is favorable, unionization is associated with higher firm productivity. Conversely, a poor quality of union-management relations is associated with decreased productivity in unionized firms. The quality of union-management relationships influences the motivation of employees. When the quality of union management relations is poor, the potential for increments in job performance maybe be offset by decreased individual motivation, work stoppages, and work-to-rule campaigns. Perhaps one of the most well documented effects of unions in organizational culture is the reduction in voluntary employee turnover in unionized industries. According to Clive Fullagar, unions help to reduce turnover in two different ways. First, unions increase wages and improve working conditions. These primary union effects make unionized jobs more attractive and conversely reduce the likelihood of finding an equivalent job. The union affects on benefits and particularly the increase in deferred compensation schemes that favor senior workers, contribute to the union effect on turnover. Similarly, benefits based on seniority also help to decrease the voluntary turnover rate. Second, unions reduce turnover by providing individuals with a voice. Through the provision of employee grievance systems, unions provide the individual an alternative to quitting, the opportunity to redress specific dissatisfactions through the grievance system. Unions provide mechanism for individual to express their dissatisfactions and influence their working conditions. The provision of such mechanism reduces the probability that an individual will voluntarily resign his or her position. If unions reduce voluntary turnover by providing voice mechanisms to individuals then these effects may be logically extended to other forms of individual withdrawal from work such as absenteeism. However, unionized firms experience higher absenteeism rates. Therefore, in this sense unions hurt organizational culture. For example, increased sick-leave benefits negotiated during collective bargaining are associated with higher rates of absenteeism. Another ways in which a union can hurt an organizational culture is by causing strain and stress. While not widely researched, there are conceptual reasons to suggest that unions and the practice of industrial relations have consequences in terms of individual stress and strain. First unions negotiate contract provisions that directly affect working conditions. Management may react by implementing more formal policies and standardized job descriptions. The result of such increased formalization may be experienced as a reduction in role ambiguity and increase in role conflict, which are two components of roles stress. The consequences of worker participation in union activities also have an impact on organization performance and various behavioral outputs. Unions provide discontented workers with a participatory forum and a collective voice at the workplace by means of which they may articulate their feelings rather than exiting temporarily through absenteeism or permanently through turnover. Unions encourage member participation making employees feel valuable to the organization. Union organizations have mechanisms such as a written constitution and bylaws that ensure an opportunity for members to participate in the governance of the organization, hold office, attend meetings, vote in elections, or express dissatisfaction with the leadership. Unions help improve an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture by maintaining some balance between employer and employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and responsibilities. Although employers and employees share some common interest, each group is motivated by self-interest. The inherent conflict of interest between employers and employees inevitably creates conflict within any employment relationship, which must be managed effectively. Unions rather than an individual are more effective in managing this conflict of interest and creating an enjoyable working environment. The presence of the union formalizes the employee representation activities because employees may file a grievance if they believe the company has violated the terms of the negotiated agreement. If the company employs an accommodation and labor management cooperation strategy, unions can help by cooperating with management rather than the parties having an adversarial relationship. Management and the unions can actively work together to create an organizational climate and a way of operating that will allow employees to participate directly in decisions in their work areas as members of task teams and as members of problem-solving groups. Unions can contribute to companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ strategic planning and implementation activities which directly affect the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. For example, a union can provide input from a clearly defined group of employees, as well as transfer information about corporate plans and direction to those represented employees. The union leaders can help the rank-and-file employees better understand the business plan and lend credibility to the plan. According to our textbook, The Labor Relations Process, Ã¢â¬Å"Unions can help improve an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture by reducing the employees feeling of alienation which have resulted from the extensive use of machinery in manufacturing operations. Employees might feel alienated because they have lost contact with their own labor when the product they created were taken away from them, thereby reducing their spirit and status or when they became estranged from fellow employees when their work made them too tired and competitive that they were incapable of having authentic relationships. Unions can and do address a possible aspect of employee alienation, namely the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ desire to speak their minds without fear of management reprisal. For example, a union typically indicates to its potential members that the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s rights to voice their opinions regarding a managerial action are protected by negotiated grievance procedures and disciplinary polices. In conclusion, Unions play a crucial role in improving an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Therefore the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s members understanding of organizational culture as well as management recognition of the union as a key player in improving organizational culture is imperative. The above examples indicate that failure to achieve organizational change when necessary can be accredited to the lack of managementÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding about the important role culture plays for an organization. The most important point of this is that such as an organizational culture is made of members that might be unionÃ¢â¬â¢s members in a unionized firm, and their approval, understanding, and acceptance of any change in their inherent or traditional culture is essential for an organization to operate effectively. Although, the majority of examples and research suggests that unions have more positive impacts in improving an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, they can also hurt it if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t develop the skills needed for mutual union-management cooperation such as understanding the business and the problem-solving process. They can hurt the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t maintain contact with the membership to better represent membersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests. Also, if management doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take steps to reorient its view from seeing unions and labor agreements as constrains to recognizing a more cooperative union-management relationship and provides the union with a secure position as the legitimate, permanent representative of the bargaining unit employees. Bibliography Ashby Franklin C. Revitalize Your Corporate Culture: Powerful Ways to Transform your Company. Golf Professional Publishing. Burlington: MA, 1999. Ashkanasy M. Neal, Wilderon Celeste, and Peterson Mark. Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate. London: New Delhi, 2004. Clark F. Paul. Building More Effective Unions. Cornell University Press. New York: Ithaca, 2000. Julian Barling, Fullagar Clive, and Kelloway Kevin. The Union Its Members: A Psychological Approach. Oxford University Press. New York: Oxford, 1992. Holley William, Jennings Kenneth, and Wolters Rogers. The Labor Relations Process. South-Western. Ohio: Mason, 2005.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
All About the Genre of Character Writing A brief descriptive sketch of a class or type of person (such as a city slicker, a country bumpkin, or a grumpy old man) rather than of an individual personality. Character-writing became a popular literary form in England following the publication in 1592 of a Latin translation of Theophrastus, an ancient Greek writer of similar sketches. Characters eventually became more individualized and were integrated with the essay and the novel. Also Known As: character sketch Examples of Character Writing The Character of the Man in Black, by Oliver GoldsmithA Definition of a Gentleman, by John Henry NewmanGood Souls, by Dorothy ParkerThe Landlord, by Henry David ThoreauMr. Barlow, by Charles DickensThe Plumber, by Anthony TrollopeThe Satirist, by Robert Louis StevensonStatus Details in Tom Wolfes DescriptionsThree Characters by John EarleThe True Friend, by Joseph Hall Etymology From the Latin (mark, distinctive quality) from the Greek (scratch, engrave) Observations and Examples: The 17th of a Character: The AnchormanHe graduated from drama school and looked for parts in television. Because he had prognathous jaws like a cowboys and every cilium of his light-brown hair seemed to be nailed into his skull for keeps, he was steered into the news department. At first, like all beginning newscasters, he had to leave the building...He would stand in front of the building and hold a microphone covered in black styrofoam and recite AP or UPI copy about [an] event. He could do this without skipping a beat, and he maintained his head of hair nearly intact, and soon he did not have to leave the building anymore. He was promoted to the anchor desk of the stations six oclock news broadcast, where he reads the AP and UPI copy from the Teleprompter. Only two things stand in the way of his goal of reaching the network news desk. One is the Anchorwoman, a fireproof blonde who is so aggressive, such a nutcracker, that she terrifies him. His on-air Happy Hour Chitchat with her sounds as if it is being extracted by water torture. The other is the ever-so-imperceptibly widening part in his hair.(Tom Wolfe, Success Stories: The Anchorman. In Our Time, Farrar, 1980) The Theophrastian CharacterTheophrastus (c. 371 of a Character: The Penurious ManThe Penurious man is one who, while the month is current, will come to ones house and ask for a half-obol [a silver coin]. When he is at the table with others he will count how many cups each of them has drunk; and will pour a smaller libation to Artemis than any of the company. Whenever a person has made a good bargain for him and charges him with it, he will say that it is too dear. When a servant has broken a jug or a plate he will take the value out of his rations; or, if his wife has dropped a three-farthing piece, he is capable of moving the furniture and the sofas and the wardrobes, and of rummaging in the curtains. If he has anything to sell he will dispose of it at such a price that the buyer shall have no profit. He is not likely to let one eat a fig from his garden, or walk through his land, or pick up one of the olives or dates that lie on the ground, and he will inspect his boundaries day by day to see if they remain the same. He is apt, also, to enforce the right of distraining, and to exact compound interest. When he feasts the men of his parish, the cutlets set before them will be small: when he markets, he will come in having bought nothing. And he will forbid his wife to lend salt, or a lamp-wick, or cummin, or verjuice, or meal for sacrifice, or garlands, or cakes; saying that these trifles come to much in the year. Then, in general, it may be noticed that the moneyboxes of the penurious are mouldy, and the keys rusty; that they themselves wear their cloaks scarcely reaching to the thigh; that they anoint themselves from very small oil-flasks; that they have their hair cut close; that they take off their shoes in the middle of the day; and that they are urgent with the fuller to let their cloak have plenty of earth, in order that it may not soon be soiled.(The Characters of Theophrastus, edited and translated by R.C. Jebb. Macmillan, 1870)
Sunday, February 16, 2020
A visit to a museum or art gallery exhibit - Essay Example Within these periods there was further designation based on the regions of their creation. Ultimately, the vases acted as a powerful example of artistry and ancient Greek history. Another thing I witnessed at the gallery exhibition was Marcia Gygli KingÃ¢â¬â¢s "Cantilever, 1980". This exhibit was a mixed-media work. The work itself is part painting and part sculpture. In terms of art history this work is notable as it is demonstrative of a period of expression where artists began to experiment with the deconstruction of categories and produce hybrid works. Another prominent work I witnessed was Richard Dieben KornÃ¢â¬â¢s "Ocean Park". This painting was a large landscape type work, except it was composed of figurative and abstract forms. While one thinks of abstract expressionism in terms of the messy Jackson Pollack type work, Ã¢â¬Å"Ocean ParkÃ¢â¬ is a much more orderly work. In these respects one notes that the work is almost a hybrid of such artists that make great use of b locks of color, along with the abstract expressionist creation of emotion through figurative means of expression. The work is ultimately highly notable within art history as a unique piece of mid-20th century work.